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The rise of strong computer programs (called "engines") runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments.There are many variants of chess that utilize different rules, pieces, or boards.Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn.The objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture.The first generally recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886.Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE), the game's international governing body.One of these, Chess960 (originally named "Fischerandom"), has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition. The colors of the 64 squares alternate and are referred to as light and dark squares.The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player.
In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by of the opponent, which typically occurs when too much material is lost or checkmate appears inevitable.With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies.A player may not make any move that would put or leave the player's own king under attack.There are also several ways a game can end in a draw.Chess is believed to have originated in India sometime before the 7th century.
Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory, particularly in the endgame.